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How To Solder Guide (Tips and Tricks) - Halfstudents.in

 

         How To Make a Perfect Soldering Joint- halfstudents.in


The most fundamental skill needed to assemble any electronic project is that of soldering. It takes some practice to make the perfect joint, but, like riding a bicycle, once learned is never forgotten! The idea is simple: to join electrical parts together to form an electrical connection, using a molten mixture of lead and tin (solder) with a soldering iron.


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How to solder practical

How to solder practical

soldering and desoldering

soldering and desoldering

how to do soldering

how to do soldering


Soldering is  a very helpful technique by which we can design any circuit with a professional way on PCB. It is like welding, but this time we are not welding two iron parts but some electronic components.

 

SEE VIDEO HOW TO MAKE PROPER SOLDERING JOINT CLICK HERE

 Soldering material:

An alloy of tin and lead called solder (63% tin and 37% lead), is normally used to ‘metallurgically’ bind a component pin/leg to the copper track of a circuit.

There are also some other kind of soldering material which are commonly available( 60% tin and 40% lead).

Lead is very dangerous for health due to its poisonous nature. So lead-free soldering material is also available in the market although it is costly and needs more practice to make a perfect soldering joint, due to having more melting point than leaded solder. (lead-free soldering need more temperature than leaded solder )

Soldering flux: 

It is a type of grease that is used to give proper joint between the wires and soldering material. flux is very useful when we have to cure the dry joints in the circuit. 

Soldering irons : 

Soldering irons are the main structural unit of soldering and these are available in many varieties of soldering iron which are dependent on voltage, heater valve, and wattage are classified below:

Voltage: 

Most irons run from the mains at 220V. However, low voltage types (e.g. 12V or 24V) generally form part of a "soldering station" and are designed to be used with a special controller made by the same manufacturer. We can also design a portable soldering iron but this is only possible when we are using 12volt soldering iron. Just we need to connect a battery it may be of lithium and we can perform better soldering anywhere in the world.

 

Wattage:

 Typically, they may have a power rating of between 15-25 watts or so, which is fine for most work. A higher wattage does not mean that the iron runs hotter - it simply means that there is more power in reserve for coping with larger joints. This also depends partly on the design of the "bit" (the tip of the iron). Consider a higher wattage iron simply as being more "unstoppable" when it comes to heavier-duty work because it won't cool down so quickly. Wattage is more important when we are performing a big task, which means where we need a huge soldering joint to make the components bind.

Otherwise, we can simply use a low wattage soldering iron to design our regular circuits.

 

Temperature Control:

 The simplest and cheapest types don't have any form of temperature regulation. Simply plug them in and switch them on! Thermal regulation is "designed in" (by physics, not electronics!): they may be described as "thermally balanced" so that they have some degree of temperature "matching" but their output will otherwise not be controlled. Unregulated irons form an ideal general-purpose iron for most users, and they generally cope well with printed circuit board soldering and general inter wiring. A proper temperature-controlled iron will be quite a lot more expensive.

Temperature control soldering irons can also be designed using some electronic microchips and giving programming to them.

 CLICK HERE to see how to make a temperature control soldering iron

 

Turning to the actual techniques of soldering, firstly it's best to secure the work somehow so that it doesn't move during soldering and affect your accuracy. In the case of a printed circuit board, various holding frames are fairly popular especially with densely populated boards: the idea is to insert all the parts on one side ("stuffing the board"), hold them in place with a special foam pad to prevent them from falling out, turn the board over and then snip off the wires with cutters before making the joints.

Proper soldering Technique:

 

 

 

 

 

 The frame saves an awful lot of turning the board over and over, especially with large boards. Other parts could be held firm in a modeler's small vice, for example. Solder joints may need to possess some degree of mechanical strength in some cases, especially with wires soldered to, say, potentiometer or switch tags, and this means that the wire should be looped through the tag and secured before solder is applied. The downside is that it is more difficult to de-solder the joint and remove the wire afterward, if required. Otherwise, in the case of an ordinary circuit board, components' wires are bent to fit through the board, inserted flush against the board's surface, splayed outwards a little so that the part grips the board and then soldered. Integrated circuits can either be soldered directly into place if you are confident enough, or better, use a dual-in-line socket to prevent heat damage. The chip can then be swapped out if needed. Parts that become hot in operation (e.g. some resistors) are raised above the board slightly to allow air to circulate. Some components, especially large electrolytic capacitors may require a mounting clip to be screwed down to the board first, otherwise, the part may eventually break off due to vibration.

 

 

Desoldering techniques

 

A soldered joint that is improperly made will be electrically "noisy", unreliable and is likely to get worse in time. It may even not have made any electrical connection at all, or could work initially and then cause the equipment to fail at a later date! It can be hard to judge the quality of a solder joint purely by appearances because you cannot say how the joint actually formed on the inside, but by following the guidelines there is no reason why you should not obtain perfect results. A joint which is poorly formed is often called a "dry joint". Usually, it results from dirt or grease preventing the solder from melting onto the parts properly and is often noticeable because of the tendency of the solder not to "spread" but to form beads or globules instead, perhaps partially. Alternatively, if it seems to take an inordinately long time for the solder to spread, this is another sign of possible dirt and that the joint may potentially be a dry one. There will undoubtedly come a time when you need to remove the solder from a joint: possibly to replace a faulty component or fix a dry joint. The usual way is to use a desoldering pump or vacuum pump which works as a small spring-loaded bicycle pump, only in reverse! A spring-loaded plunger is released at the push of a button and the molten solder is then drawn up into the pump. It may take one or two attempts to clean up a joint this way, but a small desoldering pump is an invaluable tool especially for p.c.b. work. Sometimes, it's effective to actually add more solder and then desolder the whole lot with a pump, if the solder is particularly awkward to remove. Care is needed, though, to ensure that the boards and parts are not damaged by excessive heat; the pumps themselves have a P.T.F.E. nozzle which is heatproof but may need replacing occasionally. An excellent alternative to a pump is to use desoldering braid, including the famous American "Solder-Wick" (sic) or Adcola "TISA-Wick" which are packaged in small dispenser reels. This product is a specially treated fine copper braid which draws molten solder up into the braid where it solidifies. The best way is to use the tip of the hot iron to press a short length of braid down onto the joint to be de-soldered. The iron will subsequently melt the solder, which will be drawn up into the braid. Take extreme care to ensure that you don't allow the solder to cool with the braid adhering to the work, or you run the risk of damaging p.c.b. copper tracks when you attempt to pull the braid off the joint. That is why buying a small reel of de-soldering braid, especially for larger or difficult joints which would take several attempts with a pump is recommended. It is surprisingly effective, especially on difficult joints where a desoldering pump may prove a struggle.

 SEE VIDEO CLICK HERE how to desolder properly

 

How to make the perfect solder joint.

1. All parts must be clean and free from dirt and grease.

2. Try to secure the work firmly.

3. "Tin" the iron tip with a small amount of solder. Do this immediately, with new tips being used for the first time.

 4. Clean the tip of the hot soldering iron on a damp sponge.

5. Many people then add a tiny amount of fresh solder to the cleansed tip.

6. Heat all parts of the joint with the iron for under a second or so.

7. Continue heating, then apply sufficient solder only, to form an adequate joint.

8. Remove and return the iron safely to its stand.

9. It only takes two or three seconds at most, to solder the average PCB joint.

10. Do not move parts until the solder has cooled.

 

 

Troubleshooting Guide

 • Solder won't "take" - grease or dirt present - desolder and clean up the parts. Or, material may not be suitable for soldering with lead/tin solder (e.g. aluminum).

 

• Joint is crystalline or grainy-looking - has been moved before being allowed to cool, or joint was not heated adequately - too small an iron/ too large a joint.

 • Solder joint forms a "spike" - probably overheated, burning away the flux.

  If there are spikes on soldering then apply soldering flux to make a proper joint.

 

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